The IQUPS network organises series of introductory lectures on Quantum Engineering, open to Master students, PhD students, post-docs, and researchers. MARCH 2017: Optical Quantum Engineering / Electrical Quantum Engineering; OCTOBER 2017: The NV Color Centre in Diamond: Physics and Applications / Quantum optics of many-body systems; JUNE 2018: Introduction to Quantum Computing / Nanofabrication Techniques
Optical quantum engineering, from fundamentals to applications
Philippe GRANGIER (Laboratoire Charles Fabry, IOGS, Palaiseau)
In this course we will start from basic quantum mechanics and introduce progressively qubits, entanglement, and Bell's inequalities; some details will be given about « Aspect's experiments » realized in the 1980's at Institut d'Optique, as well as on the recent « loophole free Bell tests » realized in 2015. In the second part we will point out the links between entanglement, quantum measurement, and quantum gates, and illustrate these ideas using some simple examples. In the third and fourth parts these ideas will be applied to quantum optics experiments with Gaussian and non Gaussian states, quantum cryptography, and possible future quantum networks.
Lecture 1 (7 March, 9:15-10:45) : Qubits, entanglement and Bell’s inequalities.
Lecture 2 (14 March,11:00-12:30) : Entanglement in a Quantum Measurement Process : from QND measurements to quantum gates.
Lecture 3 (21 March, 9:15-10:45) : Quantum optics with discrete and continuous variables
Lecture 4 (28 March, 11:00-12:30) : Quantum cryptography and optical quantum networks
* Cohen Tannoudji, Diu et Laloé, Mécanique Quantique
* Bases on Quantum Information: Nielsen et Chuang; lecture notes by John Preskill, published but also available on-line
* Classical information theory (Shannon etc) : book by de Cover et Thomas
Electrical quantum engineering with superconducting circuits
Patrice BERTET and Reinier HEERES (Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-Saclay)
The research field of quantum state engineering with electrical superconducting circuits was born from fundamental questionings about the possibility of observing macroscopic quantum phenomena. This led to the experimental demonstration, 15 years ago, that the quantum state of an electrical circuit can be manipulated and read-out. Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions can thus behave as genuine artificial two-level atoms, which can be used as quantum bits. Compared to real atoms, these superconducting qubits are macroscopic in size, leading to large electrical or magnetic dipole, which facilitates their coupling to other circuits. Superconducting qubits can in particular be strongly coupled to superconducting resonators. This coupled qubit-resonator system is described by the Jaynes-Cummings model, which also describes the coupling of real atoms to high-quality-factor resonators in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). The circuit version (called by analogy to atomic physics « Circuit QED ») offers an architecture for quantum information processing since it enables qubit readout and multi-qubit entanglement and gates. Recent experiments have demonstrated the operation of elementary quantum processors based on up to 10 qubits. In addition, it is possible to couple superconducting circuits and resonators to other quantum systems such as spins or mechanical resonators, forming socalled Hybrid Quantum Devices.
Lecture 1 (7 March, 11:00-12:30; P. Bertet) : Introduction to superconducting circuits and qubits
Lecture 2 (14 March, 9:15-10:45; R. Heeres) : Circuit QED : qubit state readout, and resonator quantum state engineering
Lecture 3 (21 March, 11:00-12:30; P. Bertet) : Multi-qubit quantum state engineering and quantum gates
Lecture 4 (28 March, 9:15-10:45; P. Bertet): Introduction to Hybrid Quantum Devices
- lecture notes of David Mermin
- lecture notes by John Preskill, see above.
The NV Color Centre in Diamond: Physics and Applications
Jean-François ROCH (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, ENS Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris-Sud and CNRS, Orsay)
The NV color centre in diamond was identified in 1965 as a luminescent defect with an electron spin S=1. It then received a lot of attention after the discovery in 1997 that this point defect can be isolated as an individual quantum system inside the solid state matrix. Its remarkably stable photoluminescence even at room luminescence makes this system an efficient and practical singlephoton source. Its electron spin can be addressed and coherently manipulated using a combination of optical and microwave excitations. The understanding of the NV centre physical properties, in parallel with remarkable progresses in diamond material fabrication, has now led to many applications in sensing and quantum information which this series of four lectures will try to review.
Lecture 1 (27 September, 9:15-10:45) : The NV centre: Spectroscopy and energy levels
Lecture 2 (4 October, 11:00-12:30) : The electron spin of the NV centre
Lecture 3 (18 October, 9:15-10:45) : Magnetometry and other sensing applications using the NV centre
Lecture 4 (25 October, 11:00-12:30) : Nuclear spins in diamond as a quantum ressource
Quantum optics of many-body systems
Igor MEKHOV (CEA-Saclay, St. Petersburg State University, University of Oxford)
Both quantum optics and physics of many-body strongly correlated systems are recognized fundamental bases for developing quantum technologies. Novel paradigms arise at the intersection of several fields such as atomic and condensed matter physics. I will briefly review some ideas, where the many-body aspects of quantum systems provide key advantages over a collection of singleparticle elements. Then, I will present approaches to reach regimes, where not only the quantization of light and matter are equally important, but the quantum nature of the measurement process and dissipation plays a central role as well.
Lecture 1 (27 September, 11:00-12:30) : Quantum optics of light waves and quantum waves of ultracold matter
Lecture 2 (4 October, 9:15-10:45) : Many-body systems for quantum simulations and metrology
Lecture 3 (18 October, 11:00-12:30) : Quantum nature of the measurement process and dissipation
Lecture 4 (25 October, 9:15-10:45) : Merging quantizations of light and matter, perspectives for quantum engineering
Introduction to Quantum Computing
Anthony LEVERRIER and Mazyar MIRRAHIMI (Inria Paris)
In 1994, Peter Shor took the computer science community by surprise by devising an efficient algorithm for factoring that could run on a quantum computer. This was a totally unexpected discovery since the difficulty of factoring large integers is at the basis of most cryptosystems deployed today on the internet.
In this course, we will provide an introduction to quantum computing and review the main quantum algorithms, in particular Shor’s algorithm for factoring and Grover’s algorithm for searching in a database.
Building a large scale quantum computer capable of implementing such algorithms for real world data has turned out to be an extremely challenging project, due to the issue of decoherence. In a second part of the course, we will discuss approaches to fight decoherence, namely quantum error correction and quantum fault-tolerance
Dominique Mailly (C2N)