According to article L612-7 of the education code that defines what is a PhD: "the doctorate is awarded after the defence of a thesis and the presentation of a set of original scientific work." This thesis or work may be individual or, if the discipline warranted, collective, already published or unpublished. In the case of the thesis or the works are the result of a collective contribution, the candidate must write and support a thesis allowing to enjoy his personal share."

Copyrigth and legal deposit

The thesis makes the object of a legal deposit. The doctor is the sole author of the thesis. The legal deposit legally establishes copyright and must be performed before that the thesis be put into circulation (i.e before sending the thesis to the rapporteurs). As soon as the first legal deposit is done, a national thesis NNT number is assigned to the thesis and allows to get an ISBN number (for free). This is done at the request of the doctoral student or under some agreements of international co-supervision of thesis

The deposit is made in two steps. The first deposit is made before starting the procedure of defence. The second deposit is made after the defence and allows to bring either of minor revisions (specify who was the chairman of the examination panel on the front page, for example), left under the responsibility of the doctor or the major, revisions requested by the examination panel, which will be verified by a member of the Board appointed for the purpose.


The thesis is also the object of general and specific dissemination terms on the portal managed by ABES (Agency of higher education Librarian), then on the European portal DartEurope. The electronic thesis file is deposited in Adum in PDF format. The metadata necessary for the description, management, dissemination and archiving of the thesis, as well as for the manufacturing of the diploma are all extracted from Adum.

Attention: the author of the thesis (the doctor) can disseminate only what belongs to him, the doctoral student must verify that it has got the copyright or the permission of the authors on the figures and articles, verification is possible on the Sherpa/Romeo site.

Embargo : the dissemination of the thesis on the portal and DartEurope may be deferred for a period to be specified in the general and specific terms of dissemination of the thesis on This Embargo applies only to the dissemination on and DartEurope. 

Special edition of the thesis dedicated to its dissemination : it is possible to provide a spacial edition of the thesis, in addition to the original version of the thesis subject to the legal deposit, to be dissiminated online.

Creative Commons is adding free copyright  licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can legally share, remix, use commercially, and so on.. Contact the librarian to learn how to use it. 

Afficher l'image d'origine


If the thesis has a proven confidentiality, then an exemption to the public character of the defence (behind closed doors) must be requested from the president of Université Paris-Saclay.

In this case, confidentiality commitments shall be signed by all those who will have knowledge of the content of the thesis (rapporteurs, examination panel, public attendance). The confidentiality agreements can be found here .

People have to know the content of the thesis inside Université Paris-Saclay or any other confidential matters which have come to their knowledge in the course of the performance of their official duties (supervisor, director of the research unit, director of the graduate school, valuation department staff , librarian in charge of the legal deposit etc.) are, because of their professional status, already subject to obligations of discretion and secrecy and therefore do not have to sign additional confidentiality undertakings. Learn More...

In this case, the dissemination of the thesis on and on DartEurope will also be subject to an embargo for the duration of the period of confidentiality.


A thesis submitted to a confidentiality clause will not be distributed, reproduced, or communicated during the defined period of confidentiality. The doctor himself is deprived of the right of disseminating his thesis or disclose its contents to anyone. A confidentiality clause can be a serious impediment to a doctor, especially if his/her job search requires that s/he presents its achievements.

Installation of a confidentiality clause should therefore be reserved for information of a real confidential nature and should not apply to the whole thesis. It is highly recommended to group confidential information in an annex to the thesis which will be the only one to be subject to the obligations of confidentiality. A special edition of the thesis dedicated to its dissemination online, in which the confidential annex has been removed, can be provided at the legal deposit, in addition to the archive version which must contain this confidential annex.

All you need to know about patents on the web site of INPI :


Format of the thesis

File Format

The electronic file of the thesis is the format . PDF. Attention: a recent PDF version must be used. The versions of . PDF previous to 1.4 are no longer being accepted.

Cover page

The title page must appear as described in the standards set out by Université Paris-Saclay. It must, without exception, contain all of the following required information:

  • name of institution conferring the doctoral degree (Université Paris-Saclay) and, in the event of international joint supervision of thesis, the name of the foreign institution also conferring the doctoral degree, along with their logos
  • name of the member or associate higher education institution of Université Paris-Saclay at which the thesis is being prepared along with its logo
  • name of the doctoral school,
  • field of study,
  • thesis title,
  • author,
  • date and place of defence,
  • names and surnames of all examination panel members along with their functions on the panel, their title and the institution they serve.

Please ensure that the field of study is the same as found on the list of fields of study for each doctoral school.

A template and a few examples of cover pages have been provided at Université Paris-Saclay's website (Doctorate / Reference Documents for thesis defence), as well as the logos to be used.

Note: As theses are circulated and stored electronically, the cover page format is to be used for the thesis's electronic archived and circulated versions. For all other modes of dissemination and sharing, the Doctors are entirely free to choose the cover format that best suits them (adding artwork or logo), but the regulatory information listed above must be included, in particular the number of the deposit (NNT or ISBN).

Back Cover

Likewise, the back cover page must appear as described in the standards set out by Université Paris-Saclay and must contain the required information (title, keywords and abstract in French and English). Abstracts in French and English have a maximum length of 4000 characters including spaces.

Thesis Language

The Thesis language shall be French, except where exceptions are substantiated.

The choice of the English language is supposed to be justified a priori by the needs of an international dissemination of the thesis.

This provision is taken:

  • By application of article L121-3 of the code of education (from the Toubon’s law) ("the language of teaching, examinations and competitions, as well as that of theses and dissertations in public and private higher education institution is French, with justified exceptions [...]").
  • By application of article L123-7 of the code of education ("The public service of higher education contributes, within the international scientific and cultural community, to rational debate and critical reflection, to advances in research and to the meeting of cultures. It promotes, at the European and international levels, better knowledge sharing and dissemination to civil societies.
  • By application of article 21 of the Decree of May 25, 2016 ("The language in which the thesis is written shall be determined by a signed agreement between the contracting institutions". Where the said language is not French, a substantive abstract written in French language shall be attached to the thesis").

The choice of another language of the thesis that the French language is hence an exception, which must be justified and subject to a prior agreement between the stakeholders of a project of doctoral training

All French or foreign doctoral students at Université Paris-Saclay shall be required, where they have written their thesis in a language other than French, to attach an abstract in French, the length of which is determined by each doctoral school, ranging from 4,000 characters including spaces to 20 pages. The substantive thesis abstract shall be provided in the appendix to the thesis, as produced for viewing in libraries and/or circulation on the Internet, such as to ensure the French-speaking scientific community at least a minimum level of access to the scientific research undertaken at Université Paris-Saclay.

Where the thesis is written in neither French nor English, each member of the examination panel must provide a signed statement indicating proficiency in the language in which the thesis is written and agreement to review the thesis submitted (PhD / defence-related reference Documents ). 

In addition, regarding the English language, it is advised to consult, informally, the members of the examination panel, to make sure that none of them have objection in principle to examine a thesis written in a language other than the French language. In particular those that are external to Université Paris-Saclay and that are not subject to the directives of Université Paris-Saclay concerning the language of thesis.